Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw, 1804)
Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL
Actinopterygii | Perciformes | Polynemidae
Polynemus tetradactylus, Polynemus coecus, Polynemus teria, ... more
Barbure à quatre doigts, Barbudo de cuatro dedos, White salmon, ...
Motomura, H., Y. Iwatsuki, S. Kimura and T. Yoshino. 2002. (Ref. 41639)
Other references | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 200 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479); common length : 50.0
cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479); max. published weight: 145.0 kg (Ref.
Length at first maturity
Lm ?, range 22 - 24.3 cm
Pelagic-neritic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); freshwater; brackish; marine;
depth range 0 - 23 m (Ref. 6390)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 32°N - 26°S, 47°E - 154°E (Ref. 57343)
Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf to Papua New Guinea and northern Australia.
Replaced by Eleutheronema rhadinum (Jordan & Evermann, 1902), in East
Asia (Japan, China, Viet Nam).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13 - 15; Anal spines:
3; Anal soft rays: 14 - 16. Pectoral filaments 4; fin membranes vivid yellow
in life, except in large specimens, > ca 35 cm SL. Vomer with deciduous
tooth plates on both sides, except in juveniles. Posterior part of maxilla
deep, 3-4% of SL. Short tooth plate extension onto lateral surface of lower
jaw. 7-9% SL (Ref. 41639).
Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)
Occur mainly over shallow muddy bottoms in coastal waters. Also enter rivers
(Ref. 3479, 6390, 11230). Juveniles found in estuaries. During winter, adults
ascend the rivers. They usually form loose schools, although larger fish are
more often observed in pairs or singly (Ref. 6390). Feed on prawns and fish
(largely members of Mugilidae, Engraulidae, and Sciaenidae) with occasional
polychaetes. Frequency of crustaceans to fish in the diet varies seasonally.
Larvae (7-30 mm TL) feed mainly on copepods and mysids but also take shrimps
and prawn larvae (Ref. 57343). Juveniles (31-60 TL) feed on prawns shrimps
and mysids (Ref. 57343). Protandrous hermaphrodites. Marketed fresh, frozen,
and dried or salted.